Email is exactly what it sounds like: electronic mail. Emailed messages are sent from one address to other specific addresses directly, and may have documents, photos or other files attached.
Web-based email is email that is entirely online: you visit a website to log in to your account, your email is stored on your email service’s computers, and nothing is ever stored on your computer unless you choose to download it and save it. You can log in to web-based email from any internet browser in the world and from that service’s app on your smartphone or tablet.
Provider-based email is email that your internet service provider offers you as part of your service. Comcast, Verizon, RCN, or any other service provider may offer email that they store on their servers, like web-based email. You access this email using a web browser or from a web-ready television.
Institution-based email is email you get through work, school, or another organization. You usually access this email using a web browser or directly through a client (see below) on your work computer.
Self-hosted email is email you or a friend/acquaintance hosts for you. If you run your own website, you may also get email with that website address provided as part of your web hosting service.
All of the above terms refer to who provides and manages your email address for you, in the same way that the US postal service is in charge of managing postal addresses for physical buildings. You can get to, view and store your email using either web-based email or client-based email.
Just as before, web-based email means that your email lives somewhere else out on the internet, not on your home computer. You use a web browser to go to your email provider’s page, log in, and view your email there.
Client-based email means that there is a piece of software on your home computer that you use to access your email. Microsoft Outlook and Mac Mail are two of the most common clients; Thunderbird, Opera and others are also available. Many of these clients also have apps for your iPhone or Android to let you receive your mail on your mobile device.